Glossary of Terms

<< Home << Glossary of Terms

TermDefinition
Abandoned PropertyProperty left behind intentionally and permanently when it appears that the former owner does not intend to come back, pick it up, or use it. One may have abandoned the property of contract rights by not doing what is required by the contract. However, an easement and other land rights are not abandoned property just because of nonuse. Abandoned land is defined as land not being used at the present time but that may have utilities and infrastructure in place.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014.
Adaptation Action AreasThe Adaptation Action Area (AAA), as defined in the Florida Community Planning Act, is an optional comprehensive plan designation for areas that experience coastal flooding and that are vulnerable to the related impacts of rising sea levels for prioritizing funding for infrastructure and adaptation planning.
Adapted plant or vegetationVegetation that is not native to a particular region but that has characteristics that allow it to live in the area. Adapted plants do not pose the same problems as invasive species. Plants indigenous to a locally (native) or adapted to the local climate and are not considered invasive species or noxious weeds (adapted); they require limited irrigation following planting, do not require active maintenance such as mowing and provide habitat value.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014; Also from (www.GBCi.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Added antimicrobial treatmentA substance added to a product (e.g., paint, flooring) to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Some products, such as linoleum, exhibit natural antimicrobial properties. Despite current practice, science has not proven that antimicrobial treatments reduce infection transfer in building finishes more effectively than standard cleaning procedures. Also known as added microbial agent. See U.S. EPA factsheet, Consumer Products Treated with PesticidesAvailable from (www.epa.gov/pesticides factsheets/treatart.htm).
Adjacent SiteA site having at least a continuous 25% of its boundary bordering parcels that are previously developed sites. Only consider bordering parcels, not intervening rights-of-way. Any fraction of the boundary that borders a water body is excluded from the calculation.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014.
Agrifiber productsParticleboard, medium density fiberboard (MDF), plywood, wheatboard, strawboard, panel substrates and door cores. TheseÊproductsÊmust contain no added urea-formaldehyde resins when used on the interior of the building. See also Composite wood.Available from: (pt.eurofins.com/.../leed-for-composite-wood-and-agrifiber-products.aspx) accessed on 24 October 2014
AlbedoThe fraction of solar energy (shortwave radiation) reflected from the earth back into space. It is a measure of the reflectivity of the earth's surface.ÊÊ Also, a materialÕs ability to reject (or reflect) solar heat. Synonymous with Solar reflectance.Available from (https://www.esr.org/outreach/glossary/albedo.html) accessed on 21 October 2014
Alternative daily coverMaterial other than earthen material placed on the surface of the active face of a municipal solid waste landfill at the end of each operating day to control vectors, fires, odors, blowing litter, and scavenging.ÊGenerally these materials must be processed so they do not allow gaps in the exposed landfill face.Ê(CalRecycle)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014.
Alternative fuelLow-polluting, nongasoline fuels such as electricity, hydrogen, propane, compressed natural gas, liquid natural gas, methanol, and ethanol.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Alternative fuel vehicleVehicles that use low-polluting, non-gasoline fuels, such as electricity, hydrogen, propane or compressed natural gas, liquid natural gas, methanol and ethanol. Ê Efficient gas-electric hybrid vehicles are included in this group for LEED purposes.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Alternative Water SourceNon-potable water from other than public utilities, on-site surface sources, and subsurface natural freshwater sources. Examples include graywater, on-site reclaimed water, collected rainwater, captured condensate, and rejected water from reverse osmosis systems (IgCC).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Annual sunlight exposure (ASE)A metric that describes the potential for visual discomfort in interior work environments. It is defined as the percentage of an analysis area that exceeds a specified direct sunlight illuminance level more than a specified number of hours per year.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Appurtenancea built-in, nonstructural portion of a roof system. Examples include skylights, ventilators, mechanical equipment, partitions, and solar energy panels.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
ASE 1000, 250Reports the percentage of sensors in the analysis area, using a maximum 2-foot spacing between points, that are found to be exposed to more than 1000 lux of direct sunlight for more than 250 hours per year, before any operable blinds or shades are deployed to block sunlight, considering the same 10 hour/day analysis period as sDA and using comparable simulation methods.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Assemblya product formulated from multiple materials (e.g., concrete) or a product made up of subcomponents (e.g., a workstation).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Attendance BoundaryThe limits used by school districts to determine what school students attend based on where they live.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Average LED intensity (ALI)the illumination output for light-emitting diode lamps, as specified in the International Commission on Illumination Standard 127Ð2007.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Base BuildingMaterials and products that make up the building or are permanently and semi-permanently installed in the project (e.g., flooring, casework, wall coverings).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Baseline building performanceThe annual energy cost for a building design, used as a baseline for comparison with above-standard design.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Baseline ConditionBefore the LEED project was initiated, but not necessarily before any development or disturbance took place. Baseline conditions describe the state of the project site on the date the developer acquired rights to a majority of its buildable land through purchase or option to purchase.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Baseline irrigation water useThe amount of water that would be used by a typical method of irrigation for a region.Available from (www.GBCI.orgy) accessed 24 October 2014
Baseline Water ConsumptionA calculated projection of building water use assuming code-compliant fixtures and fittings with no additional savings compared with the design case or actual water meter data.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Basis of Design (BOD)The information to accomplish the ownerÕs project requirements, including system descriptions, indoor environmental quality criteria, design assumptions, and references to applicable codes, standards, regulations, and guidelines.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Bicycle NetworkA continuous network consisting of any combination of the following 1) off street bicycle paths or trails at least 8 feet (2.5 meters) wide for a two-way path and at least 5 feet (1.5 meters) wide for a one-way path 2) physically designated on-street bicycle lanes at least 5 feet (1.5 meters) wide 3) streets designed for a target speed of 25 mph (40 km/h) or lessAvailable from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Bicycle racksOutdoor bicycle racks, bicycle lockers and indoor bicycle storage rooms.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Bicycling distancethe distance that a bicyclist must travel between origins and destinations, the entirety of which must be on a bicycle network.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Bio-based materialcommercial or industrial products (other than food or feed) that are composed in whole, or in significant part, of biological products, renewable agricultural materials (including plant, animal, and marine materials), or forestry materials. For the purposes of LEED, this excludes leather and other animal hides.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
BiodieselBiodiesel is a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines derived from natural oils like soybean oil. Biodiesel can be used in any concentration with petroleum based diesel fuel in existing diesel engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel is not the same thing as raw vegetable oil. It is produced by a chemical process which removes the glycerin from the oil.Biodiesel [online] Jefferson City, MO. Available from:Êhttp://www.biodiesel.org/resources/definitions/[accessed 16 December 2009]
Biofuel-based electrical systemElectrical power systems that run on renewable fuels derived from organic materials, such as wood by-products and agricultural waste. For purposes of LEED, biofuels include unrelated wood waste (e.g. mill residues), agricultural crops or waste, animal waste and other organic waste and landfill gas.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Biological controlThe use of chemical or physical water treatments to inhibit bacterial growth in cooling towers.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
BiomassPlant material from trees, grasses or crops that can be converted to heat energy to produce electricity.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
BlackbodyA hypotheticalÊbody that absorbs without reflection all of Êthe electromagneticÊradiationÊincident on itsÊsurface.Available from (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/blackbody) accessed 24 October 2014
BlackwaterWastewaterÊcontaining urine or fecal matter that should be discharged to the sanitary drainage system of the building or premises in accordance with the International Plumbing Code. Wastewater from kitchen sinks (sometimes differentiated by the use of a garbage disposal), showers, or bathtubs is considered blackwater under some state or local codes.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Bleed-off rateThe frequency with which the dissolved minerals and dirt are removed from the cooling tower. Ê It varies depending on the mineral content and scalding tendency of the entering water.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
BlowdownThe removal of makeup water from a cooling tower or evaporative condenser recirculation system to reduce concentrations of dissolved solids. The release of built-up solids in a cooling tower, accomplished by removing a portion of the concentrated re-circulating water that carries dissolved solids (a/ka Bleed-off)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014; Also from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
BrownfieldReal property or the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or possible presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
BUG ratingA luminaire classification system that classifies luminaires in terms of backlight (B), uplight (U), and glare (G) (taken from IES/IDA Model Lighting Ordinance). BUG ratings supersede the former cutoff ratings.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Buildable landThe portion of the site where construction can occur, including land voluntarily set aside and not constructed on. When used in density calculations, buildable land excludes public rights-of-way and land excluded from development by codified law.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Building automation system (BAS)A computer-based monitoring system that coordinates, organizes and optimizes building control subsystems, including lighting and equipment scheduling and alarm reporting.Available from (www.GBCI.org/glossary) accessed 24 October 2014
Building engineerA qualified engineering professional with relevant and sufficient expertise who oversees and is responsible for the operation and maintenance of mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems in the project building.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Building exteriorA structureÕs primary and secondary weatherproofing system, including waterproofing membranes and air- and water-resistant barrier materials, and all building elements outside that system.Available from (www.USGBC.org) accessed 20 October 2014
Building footprintThe area of the site occupied by the building structure, not including parking lots, landscapes and other non-building facilities.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Building interiorEverything inside a structureÕs weatherproofing membrane.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Building operating planA general documentation summarizing the intended operation for each base building system in the systems narrative; the building operating plan may also be known as "Owner's Operating Requirements": or similar. The operating plan includes the time-of-day schedules for each system for each of the eight day types (Monday to Sunday plus holidays), the mode of operation for each system when it is running (occupied vs. unoccupied, day vs. night, etc.) and the desired indoor conditions or setpoints for each schedule or mode. The operating plan accounts for any differences in needs or desired conditions for different portions of the project building, as well as any seasonal variations in operations patterns. The plan accounts for all the monitored space conditions used to control the base systems, i.e. air temperature, relative humidity, occupancy, light level, CO2 levels, room pressurization, duct static pressure. etc.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Bus rapid transitAn enhanced bus system that operates on exclusive bus lanes or other transit rights-of-way. The system is designed to combine the flexibility of buses with the efficiency of rail.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)A naturally occurring gas, and also a by-product of burning fossil fuels and biomass, as well as land-use changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas that affects the EarthÕs radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured and therefore has a Global Warming Potential of 1. SeeÊclimate changeÊandÊglobal warming.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) levlesAn indicator of ventilation effectiveness inside buildings CO2 concentrations greater than 530 ppm above outdoor CO2 conditions generally indicate inadequate ventilation. Absolute concentrations of CO2 greater than 800 to 1,000 ppm generally indicate poor air quality for breathing.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Carbon EmissionsPolluting carbon substances released into atmosphere:Êcarbon dioxide and carbon monoxide produced by motor vehicles and industrial processes and forming pollutants in the atmosphereEncarta¨ World English Dictionary [North American Edition] (2009) Microsoft Corporation. [online]Ê Available from:http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_701704880/carbon_emissions.htmlÊ[accessed 16 December 2009]
Carbon FootprintA carbon footprint is an estimate of how muchÊcarbon dioxideÊis produced to support your lifestyle. Essentially, it measures your impact on the climate based on how much carbon dioxide you produce. Factors that contribute to your carbon footprint include your travel methods and generalÊhome energy usage. Carbon footprints can also be applied on a larger scale, to companies, businesses, even countries.ecomii Green Dictionary A to Z. [online] Availabll from:Êhttp://www.ecomii.com/dictionary/carbon-footprintÊ[accessed 16 December 2009]
Carbon OffsetsA unit of carbon dioxide equivalent that is reduced, avoided, or sequestered to compensate for emissions occurring elsewhere (World Resources Institute)Carbon offsets are used to reduce the amount of carbon that an individual or institution emits into the atmosphere.ÊCarbon offsets work inÊa financial system where, instead of reducingÊits own carbon use,Êa companyÊcan comply with emissions caps by purchasing an offsetÊfrom an independent organization. The organization will then use that money to fund a project that reduces carbon in the atmosphere.ÊAn individual can also engage with this system and similarly pay to offset his or her own personal carbon usage instead of, or in addition to,Êtaking direct measures such as driving less or recycling. Carbon offsets are most often used by companies or institutions to reduce theirÊcarbon footprintÊwithout actuallyÊpolluting less. Most offsets involve renewable energy. For example, a company in Massachusetts can pay to build a wind turbine off the coast.ÊByÊusing its money to create renewable energy, that companyÊthereby offsets its own carbon use. ecomii Green Dictionary A to Z. [online] Available from:Êhttp://www.ecomii.com/ecopedia/carbon-offsetsÊ[accessed 16 December 2009]
CarpoolAn arrangement in which two or more people share a vehicle for transportation.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Chain of Custody (CoC)A procedure that tracks a product from the point of harvest or extraction to its end use, including all successive stages of processing, transformation, manufacturing, and distribution.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
CharretteAn intensive, multiparty workshop that brings people from different disciplines and backgrounds together to explore, generate, and collaboratively produce design options.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Chemical runoffWater that transports chemicals from the building landscape as well as surrounding streets and parking lots, to rivers and lakes. Runoff chemicals may include gasoline, oil, anti-freeze and salts.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Chemical treatmentThe use of biocidal, conditioning, dispersant and scale-inhibiting chemicals to control biological growth, scale and corrosion in cooling towers. Alternatives to conventional chemical treatment including ozonation, ionization and UV light. Reducing or eliminating chemical treatment through effective alternatives reduces the environmental and human health risks associated with the chemicals used in conventional treatment protocols.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based refrigerantA fluid, containing hydrocarbons, that absorbs heat from a reservoir at low temperatures and rejects heat at higher temperatures. When emitted into the atmosphere, CFCs cause depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
ChurnThe movement of workspaces and people within a space.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Civil twilightThe point in time in the morning (dawn) or evening (dusk) when the center of the sun is geometrically 6 degrees below the horizon. Under good weather conditions, civil twilight is the best time to distinguish terrestrial objects clearly. Before civil twilight in the morning and after civil twilight in the evening, artificial illumination normally is required to carry on ordinary outdoor activities.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Classroom or core learning spacea space that is regularly occupied and used for educational activities. In such space, the primary functions are teaching and learning, and good speech communication is critical to studentsÕ academic achievement. (Adapted from ANSI S12.60)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Clean wasteNonhazardous materials left over from construction and demolition. Clean waste excludes lead and asbestos.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Clear glazingGlass that is transparent and allows a view through the fenestration. Diffused glazing allows only daylighting.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Climate ChangeClimate change refers to any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). Climate change may result from: natural factors, such as changes in the sunÕs intensity or slow changes in the EarthÕs orbit around the sun; natural processes within the climate system (e.g. changes in ocean circulation); human activities that change the atmosphereÕs composition (e.g. through burning fossil fuels) and the land surface (e.g. deforestation, reforestation, urbanization, desertification, etc.) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Closed-loop coolingA system that acts as a heat sink for heat-rejecting building and medical equipment by recirculating water. Because the water is sealed within the system, some closed-loop cooling systems use nonpotable water (such as recycled process water harvested from an air handler's cooling coil condensate).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Color rendering indexA measurement from 0 to 100 that indictes how accurately an artificial light source, as compared with an incandescent light, displays hues. The higher the index number, the more accurately the light is rendering colors. Incandescent lighting has a color rendering index above 95; standard high-pressure sodium lighting (such as orange-hued roadway lights) measures approximately 25; many fluorescent sources using rare earth phosphors have a color rendering index of 80 and above. (Adapted from U.S. ENERGY STAR)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Combination oven dischargeWater released from an oven that includes a steam cycle or option.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Combined heat and powerAn integrated system that captures the heat, otherwise unused, generated by a single fuel source in the production of electrical power. Also known as cogeneration. (Adapted from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Comfort criteriaSpecific original design conditions that include temperature (air, radian and surface), humidity, air speed, outdoor temperature design conditions, outdoor humidity design conditions, clothing (seasonal) and expected activity (ASHRAE 55-2004).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Commingled wasteBuilding waste streams that are combined on the project site and hauled away for sorting into recyclable streams. Also known as single-stream recycling.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Commingling recyclingA process of recycling materials that allows consumers to dispose of various materials (such as paper, cardboard, plastic and metal) in one container that is separate from waste. The recyclable materials are not sorted until they are collected and brought to a sorting facility.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Commissioning (Cx)The process of verifying and documenting that a building and all of its systems and assemblies are planned, designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained to meet the ownerÕs project requirements.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Commissioning Authority (CxA)The individual designated to organize, lead, and review the completion of commissioning process activities. The CxA facilitates communication among the owner, designer, and contractor to ensure that complex systems are installed and function in accordance with the ownerÕs project requirements.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Commissioning cycleThe schedule of activities relating to existing building commissioning, including investigation and analysis phase, implementation phase and on-going commissioning.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Composite woodWood made from several materials, and agrifiber products. For this credit, these materials must comprise particleboard, medium-density firerboard (MDF), plywood, oriented-strand board (OSB), wheatboard, strawboard, panel substrates and door cores.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
CompostingThe controlled biological decomposition of organic material in the presence of air to form a humus-like material. Controlled methods of composting include mechanical mixing and aerating, ventilating the materials by dropping them through a vertical series of aerated chambers, or placing the compost in piles out in the open air and mixing it or turning it periodically.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Composting toilet systemsDry plumbing fixtures that contain and treat human waste via microbiological process.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Compressed workweekRearrangement of the standard workweek (five consecutive eight-hour days in a week) by increasing the daily hours and decreasing the number of days in the work cycle. For example, instead of working eight-hour days Monday through Friday, employees work 10-hour days for four days per week, or nine-hour days for nine of 10 consecutive days.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
ConcentrateA product that must be diluted by at least eight parts by volume water (1:8 dilution ratio) prior to its intended use (Green Seal GS-37).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
ConductivityThe measurement of the level of dissolved solids in water, using the ability of an electric current to pass through water. Because it is affected by temperature, conductivity is measured at 25¡C for standardization.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Conductivity meterA device that measures the amount of nutrients and salt in water (a/k/a EC meter).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Construction and demolition (C&D) debrisWaste and recyclables generated from construction, renovation and demolition or de-construction of pre-existing structures.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Construction, demolition and land clearing (CDL) debrisIncludes all construction and demolition debris plus soil, vegetation and rock from land clearing.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Construction IAQ management planMeasures to minimize contamination in a specific project building during construction and describes procedures to flush the building of contaminants prior to occupancy.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Conventional irrigationA regionÕs most common system for providing water to plants by non-natural means. A conventional irrigation system commonly uses pressure to deliver water and distributes it through sprinkler heads above the ground.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Cooling towerA piece of equipment that uses water to regulate air temperature in a facility by absorbing heat from air-conditioning systems or cooling down hot equipment.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Cooling tower blowdownThe water discharged from a cooling tower typically because increased salinity or alkalinity has caused scaling. Cooling tower blowdown may be too saline for use in landscape irrigation.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Cost Segregationa commonly used strategic tax planning tool that allows companies and individuals who have constructed, purchased, expanded or remodeled any kind of real estate to increase cash flow by accelerating depreciation deductions and deferring federal and state income taxes.
Cradle-to-grave assessmentanalysis of a productÕs partial life cycle, from resource extraction (cradle) to the factory gate (before it is transported for distribution and sale). It omits the use and the disposal phases of the product.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Critical visual tasksVisual tasks completed by building occupants, includes reading and computer monitor use.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Cultural landscapeAn officially designated geographic area that includes both cultural and natural resources associated with a historic event, activity, or person or that exhibits other significant cultural or aesthetic values.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Current facilities requirementsThe implementation of the ownerÕs project requirements, developed to confirm the ownerÕs current operational needs and requirements.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Daylight factorThe ratio of exterior illumination to interior illumination, expressed as a percentage. Ê The variables used to determine the daylight factor include the floor area, window area, window geometry, visible transmittance (Tvis) and window height.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Daylight glazingA vertical window area located 7' 6" above the floor. Glazing at this height is the most effective at distributing daylight deep into the interior space.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
DaylightingThe controlled admission of natural light into a space through the glazing to reduce or eliminate electric lighting. Daylighting creates a stimulating and productive environment for building occupants.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
DeclarantA LEED project team member who is technically qualified to verify the content of a LEED credit submittal template and is authorized by the project administrator to sign the template and upload it to LEED Online. The Declarant must have had a significant degree of responsibility for the credit, such as participation in, or oversight of, the implementation or verification. The declarant for credits may be restricted or non-restricted. For example, for Sustainable Sites Credit 4, only the property manager or facility manager may submit verification; for others, any team member, including contractors or consultants, can prepare the submittal documentation.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Dedicated storageA designated area in a building space or a central facility that is sized and allocated for a specific task, such as the collection of recyclable waste. Signage often indicates the type of recyclable waste stored there. Some waste streams, such as mercury-based light bulbs, sensitive paper documents, biomedical waste, or batteries, may require particular handling or disposal methods. Consult the municipalityÕs safe storage and disposal procedures or use guidelines posted on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website, at www.epa.gov.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Deep Energy Savings (DES)A range of efforts that improve energy efficiency and reduce costs. New York State requires at least 30% in energy savings depending on the age, type and location of the building to classify as DES. A 2011 study by the New Buildings Institute defined Deep Energy Savings as "demonstrated or predicted performance of 30% or better than the average for comparable buildings."Available from (http://www.globest.com/commentary/development/Deep-Energy-Savings-Defined-351314.html?utm_medium=email&utm_source=Act-On+Software&utm_content=email&utm_campaign=Deep%20Energy%20Savings%20Defined&utm_term=Click%20here&cm_mmc=Act-On%20Software-_-email-_-Deep%20Energy%20Savings%20Defined-_-Click%20here#continued); also from (www.ers-inc.com/images/articles/Papers/wedeepsavingsarticle.pdf). accessed 28 October 2014
DeforestationThose practices or processes that result in the conversion of forested lands for non-forest uses.Ê This is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect for two reasons: 1) the burning or decomposition of the wood releases carbon dioxide; and 2) trees that once removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in the process of photosynthesis are no longer present.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Demand response (DR)A change in electricity use by demand-side resources from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Demand response (DR) eventAÊspecific period of time when the utility or independent service operator calls for a change in the pattern or level of use in grid-based electricity from its program participants. Also known as a curtailment event.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Demountable partitionA temporary interior wall that can be easily reconfigured. In a health care facility, acoustical concerns and embedded equipment, as in a surgery suite, may prevent demountable partitions from being used.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Densely occupied spaceAn area with a design occupant density of 25 people or more per 1,000 square feet (93 square meters)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
DensityA measure of the total building floor area or dwelling units on a parcel of land relative to the buildable land of that parcel. Units for measuring density may differ according to credit requirements. Does not include structured parking.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Density factor (Kd)A coefficient used in calculating the Landscape Coefficient; it modifies the Evapotranspiration Rate to reflect the water use of a particular plant or group of plants, particularly with reference to the density of the plant material.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Departmental gross area (DGA)The floor area of a diagnostic and treatment of clinical department, calculated from the centerline of the walls separating the department from adjacent spaces. Walls and circulations space within the department are included in the calculation. This calculation excludes inpatient units.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Design light outputThe light output of lamps at 40% of their useful life.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Development footprintThe total land area of a project site covered by buildings, streets, parking areas, and other typically impermeable surfaces constructed as part of the project.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Differential durabilityA state in which two materials with different life spans make up one complete component. If one material wears out and cannot be separated and replaced, the entire product must be thrown away.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Direct accessA means of entering a space without having to leave the floor or pass through another patientÕs room, dedicated staff space, service or utility space, or major public space. PatientsÕ and public circulation corridors, common sitting areas, and waiting and day space may be part of a direct access route.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Direct sunlightAn interior horizontal measurement of 1,000 lux or more of direct beam sunlight that accounts for window transmittance and angular effects, and excludes the effect of any operable blinds, with no contribution from reflected light (i.e., a zero bounce analysis) and no contribution from the diffuse sky component (Adapted from IES).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
District energy system (DES)A central energy conversion plant and transmission and distribution system that provides thermal energy to a group of buildings (e.g., a central cooling plant on a university campus). It does not include central energy systems that provide only electricity.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Diverse useA distinct business or organization that provides goods or services intended to meet daily needs and is publicly available. Automated facilities such as ATMs or vending machines are not included.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
DowncyclingDowncycling is a recycling practice that involves breaking an item down into its component elements or materials. Once the constituent elements or materials are recovered, they are reused if possible but usually as a lower-value product. Ideally, only elements that cannot be reused are discarded. The goal of downcycling is reducing waste and improving the efficiency of resource use.
Available from (http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/downcycling) accessed 14 July 2016.
Downstream equipmentTthe heating and cooling systems, equipment, and controls located in the project building or on the project site and associated with transporting the thermal energy of the district energy system (DES) into heated and cooled spaces. Downstream equipment includes the thermal connection or interface with the DES, secondary distribution systems in the building, and terminal units. drift water droplets carried from a cooling tower or evaporative condenser by a stream of air passing through the system. Drift eliminators capture these droplets and return them to the reservoir at the bottom of the cooling tower or evaporative condenser for recirculation.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Drip irrigationA high-efficiency method in which water is delivered at low pressure through buried mains and sub-mains. From the sub-mains, water is distributed to the soil from a network of perforated tubes or emitters. Drip irrigation is a type of micro-irrigation.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Durable goodsProducts with a useful life of approximately two or more years and that are replaced infrequently. Examples include furniture, office equipment, appliances, external power adapters, televisions, and audiovisual equipment.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Durable goods waste streamThe flow of long-lasting products from the project building after they are fully depreciated and have reached the end of their useful life for normal business operations. It includes leased durable goods returned to their owner but does not include durable goods that remain functional and are moved to another floor or building.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Ecological footprintThe impact of human activities measured in terms of the area of biologically productive land and water required to produce the goods consumed and to assimilate the wastes generated. More simply, it is the amount of the environment necessary to produce the goods and services necessary to support a particular lifestyle. Available from (www.wwf.panda.org) accessed 10 October 2015
Ecological restorationThe process of assisting in the recovery and management of ecological integrity, including biodiversity, ecological processes and structures, regional and historical context and sustainable cultural practices.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Ecologically appropriate featuresNatural, inanimate elements of the landscape (e.g., rocks and water features.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Ecologically appropriate site featuresNatural site elements that maintain or restore the ecological integrity of the site. Ê Examples include native or adapted vegetation, waterbodies, exposed rock, unvegetated ground or other features that are part of the historic natural landscape within the region and provide habitat value.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Electric vehicle supply equipmentThe conductors, including the ungrounded, grounded, and equipment grounding conductors, the electric vehicle connectors, attachment plugs, and all other fittings, devices, power outlets or apparatuses installed specifically for the purpose of delivering energy from the premises wiring to the electric vehicle. (National Electric Codes and California Article 625)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Electronic wasteDiscarded office equipment (computers, monitors, copiers, printers, scanners, fax machines), appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, water coolers), external power adapters, and televisions and other audiovisual equipment.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Elemental mercuryMercury in its purest form (rather than a mercury-containing compound), the vapor of which is commonly used in fluorescent and other bulb types.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Emergency lightinga luminaire that operates only during emergency conditions and is always off during normal building operation.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
EmissivityThe ratio of the radiation emitted by a surface to the radiation emitted by a black body at the same temperature.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Employment centerA nonresidential area of at least 5 acres (2 hectares) with a job density of at least 50 employees per net acre (at least 125 employees per hectare net).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
EnclosureThe exterior plus semi-exterior portions of the building. Exterior consists of the elements of a building that separate conditioned spaces from the outside (i.e., the wall assembly). Semiexterior consists of the elements of a building that separate conditioned space from unconditioned space or that encloses semi-heated space through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior or conditioned or unconditioned spaces (e.g., attic, crawl space, basement).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Energy auditIdentifies how much energy is used in a building for what purposes and identifies opportunities for improving efficiency and reducing costs. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) uses three levels of energy audits: (1) walk-through analysis; (2) energy survey and analysis; and (3) detailed analysis of capital-intensive modifications (investment-grade audit).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Energy efficiencyA way of managing and restraining the growth in energy consumption. Something is more energy efficient if it delivers more services for the same energy input, or the same services for less energy input. Also, percentage of total energy input to a machine or equipment in useful work and not wasted as useless heat.Available from (www.iea.org/topics/energyefficiency) and (http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/energy-efficiency.html) accessed on 21 October 2014
Energy service providerA designation that allows an outside entity, such as USGBC, to access water and energy usage information that a building management team maintains with ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager or a similar tool.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Energy Star¨A program that evaluates theÊenergy efficiencyÊof appliances, house fixtures and other home utilities. Co-sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Energy Star program seeks to reduce greenhouse gasÊemissions by identifying energy efficient appliances, helping Americans save money on utility bills with more energy efficient homes.Energy Star ratings can be applied to a variety of household appliances, fixtures, and materials, including refrigerators, washers, dryers, lighting fixtures, computers, home electronics, windows, and heating insulation. When replacing an appliance or fixture in your home, look for the Energy Star label on products that are energy efficient and help protect the environment. When building a new home, you can also hire certified contractors who agree to actively build Energy Star-rated homes. ecomii Green Dictionary A to Z. [online] Available from:Êhttp://www.ecomii.com/ecopedia/energy-starÊ[accessed 16 December 2009]
Energy Star¨ RatingA measure of a building's energy performance compared with buildings with similar characteristics, as determined by use of the Energy Star¨ Portfolio Manager. A score of 50 represents average building performance.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Energy Use Intensity (EUI)A unit of measurement that describes a buildingÕs energy use. EUI represents the energy consumed by a building relative to its size.https://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=buildingcontest.eui [accessed 11 June 2013]
Engineered nanomaterialA substance designed at the molecular (nanometer) level. Because of its small size, it has novel properties generally not seen in its conventional bulk counterpart. See the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme, nicnas.gov.au/publications/information_sheets/general_information_sheets/nis_nanomaterials_pdf.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)Consists of airborne particles emitted both directly from cigarettes, pipes and cigars and indirectly, as exhaled by tobacco smokers.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Environmental product declarationA statement that the item meets the environmental requirements of ISO 14021Ð1999, ISO 14025Ð2006 and EN 15804, or ISO 21930Ð2007.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
ErosionThe process by which the materials of the earth's surface are loosened, dissolved or worn away and transported by natural agents.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Exhaust airThe air removed from a space and discharged outside the building by means of mechanical or natural ventilation systems.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
EvapotranspirationLoss of water by evaporation from soil and transpiration from plants; The combination of evaporation and plant transpiration into the atmosphere. Evaporation occurs when liquid water from soil, plant surfaces, or water bodies becomes vapor. Transpiration is the movement of water through a plant and the subsequent loss of water vapor.Available from (http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/152693/) accessed on 21 October 2014; Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Extended producer responsibilityMeasures undertaken by the maker of a product to accept its own and sometimes other manufacturersÕ products as postconsumer waste at the end of the productsÕ useful life. Producers recover and recycle the materials for use in new products of the same type. To count toward credit compliance, a program must be widely available. For carpet, extended producer responsibility must be consistent with NSF/ANSI 140Ð2007. Also known as closed-loop program or product take-back.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Extensive vegetated roofA roof that is covered with plants and typically not designed for general access. Usually an extensive system is a rugged green roof that requires little maintenance once established. The planting medium in extensive vegetated roofs ranges from 1 to 6 inches in depth. (Adapted from U.S. EPA) exterior vegetated surface area the total area of vegetation on the project site, including vegetated roofs and turf grass.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
External meterA device installed on the outside of a water pipe to record the volume of water passing through it. Also known as a clamp-on meter.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Facility alterations and additionsRefers to building work that is done on an existing building. Facility alterations refer to changes made to a building that do not interfere with the original design character of the building, such as replacement flooring, painting, etc. Facility additions are structures added to the original building structure that are subordinate in scale to the main building and typically located to the side or rear of the original structure. An example of an addition would be an extra floor added to the building.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Facility managerBelongs to "a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, process and technology" according to the International Facility Management Association (IFMA).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Fair TradeCrops produced according to principles in which poor farmers in developing countries receive fair prices for their products, workers enjoy safe working conditions and fair wages, communities receive development assistance and investment in social programs and crops are grown with sustainable farming methods and without the use of pesticides or genetically modified organisms. Products labeled as ÒFair Trade CertifiedÓ are verified and audited by an independent certifier. Fair Trade Certification is currently available in the United States for coffee, tea and herbs, cocoa and chocolate, fresh fruit, sugar, rice and vanilla.Oprah.com. [online]Ê Available from: Êhttp://www.oprah.com/article/world/environment/informed_glossary_az/2Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Floor-area-ratio (FAR)The density of nonresidential land use, exclusive of parking, measured as the total nonresidential buildingÊfloor areaÊdivided by the total buildable land area available for nonresidential structures. For example, on a site with 10,000 square feet (930 square meters) of buildable land area, an FAR of 1.0 would be 10,000 square feet (930 square meters) of building floor area. On the same site, an FAR of 1.5 would be 15,000 square feet (1395 square meters), an FAR of 2.0 would be 20,000 square feet (1860 square meters), and an FAR of 0.5 would be 5,000 square feet (465 square meters).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Food AllianceA certification that applies to foods from sustainable farms and ranches that produce natural products; ensure quality control and food safety; responsibly manage water, energy resources, and waste; emphasize recycling; provide a safe work environment; and commit to continuous improvement of sustainable practices.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Foundation drainThe water discharged from a subsurface drainage system. If a building foundation is below the water table, a sump pump may be required. Discharge from the sump may be stored and used for irrigation.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Freight villageA cluster of freight-related businesses that include intermodal transfer operations.ÊFreight villages may offer logistics services, integrated distribution, warehousing capabilities, showrooms, and support services.ÊSuch support services may include security, maintenance, mail, banking, customs and import management assistance, cafeterias, restaurants, office space, conference rooms, hotels, and public or activity center transportation.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Fuel-efficient vehiclesVehicles that have achieved a minimum green score of 40 on the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy annual vehicle rating guide.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Full cutoffDescribes a luminaire having a light distribution in which the candela per 1000 lamp lumens does not numerically exceed 25 (2.5%) at or above an angle of 900 above nadir, and 100 (10%) at or above a vertical angle of 800 above nadir. This applies to all lateral angles around the luminaire. (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Full disclosureFor products that are not formulated with listed suspect carcinogens has two components: Ê (1) disclosure of all ingredients (both hazardous and nonhazardous) that make up 1% or more of the undiluted product and (2) use of concentration ranges for each of the disclosed ingredients. Ê Full disclosure for products that are formulated with listed suspect carcinogens has three components: (1) disclosure of listed suspect carcinogens that make up o.1% or more of the undiluted product; (2) disclosure of all ingredients (both hazardous and nonhazardous) that make up 1% or more of the undiluted product and (3) use of concentration ranges for each of the disclosed ingredients. Ê Suspect carcinogens are those that are listed on authoritative lists (IARC, NTP or California Proposition 65) for MSDS preparation. Concentration range definitions are available from OSHA or Canada WHMIS Standards.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Full-time EquivalentA regular building occupant who spends 40 hours per week in the project building. Ê Part-time or overtime occupants have FTE values based on their hours per week divided by 40. Multiple shifts are included or excluded depending on the intent and requirements of the LEED credit.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Fully shieldedAn exterior light fixture that is shielded or constructed so that its light rays project below the horizontal plane passing through the lowest point on the fixture from which light is emitted.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Functional entryA building opening designed to be used by pedestrians and open during regular business hours. It does not include any door exclusively designated as an emergency exit, or a garage door not designed as a pedestrian entrance.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Furniture , fixtures and equipmentInclude all items that are not base building elements, such as lamps, computers and electronics, desks, chairs and tables.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Furniture & furnishingsThe stand-alone furniture items purchased for the project, including individual and group seating; open-plan and private-office workstations; desks and tables; storage units, credenzas, bookshelves, filing cabinets, and other case goods; wall-mounted visual-display products (e.g., marker boards and tack boards, excluding electronic displays); and miscellaneous items, such as easels, mobile carts, freestanding screens, installed fabrics, and movable partitions. Hospitality furniture is included as applicable to the project. Office accessories, such as desktop blotters, trays, tape dispensers, waste baskets, and all electrical items, such as lighting and small appliances, are excluded.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Geothermal EnergyGeothermal energy is electricity generated by harnessing hot water or steam from within the earth.LEED Reference Guide for Green Interior Design and Construction (ed. 2009) Glossary, 436.
Geothermal heating systemsA system that uses pipes to transfer heat from underground for heating, cooling and hot water. The system retrieves heat from the earth during cool months and returns heat in summer months.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Glazing factorThe ratio of illuminance at a given point on a given plane (usually the work plane) to the exterior illuminance under known overcast sky conditions. LLED uses a simplified approach for its credit compliance calculations. The variables used to determine the daylight factor include the floor area, window area, window geometry, visible transmittance and window height.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Global WarmingGlobal warming is an average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the EarthÕs surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns. Global warming can occur from a variety of causes, both natural and human induced. In common usage, Òglobal warmingÓ often refers to the warming that can occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Grams per brake horsepower hourMetric used to communicate how many grams of emissions (e.g., nitrogen oxide or particulate matter) are emitted by an engine of a specific horsepower rating over a one-hour period.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Gray WaterDomestic wastewater composed of wash water from kitchen, bathroom, and laundry sinks, tubs, and washers. Òuntreated household waste water which has not come into contact with toilet waste. Graywater includes used water from bathtubs, showers, bathroom wash basins, and water from clothes-washers and laundry tubs. It must not include waste water from kitchen sinks or dishwashersÓ (Uniform Plumbing Code, Appendix G, Gray Water Systems for Single-Family Dwellings); Òwaste water discharged from lavatories, bathtubs, showers, clothes washers and laundry sinksÓ (International Plumbing Code, Appendix C, Gray Water Recycling Systems). Some states and local authorities allow kitchen sink wastewater to be included in graywater. Other differences can likely be found in state and local codes. Project teams should comply with the graywater definition established by the authority having jurisdiction in the project area.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]; Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Green buildingGreen Building is the construction and renovation of buildings to reduce their impact on the environment. These buildings are built to be more energy efficient, use fewer natural resources, and reduce waste and pollution. Articles discuss the different types of construction used in green buildings such as energy efficient lighting, geothermal heating systems, and solar power as well as retrofitting of older buildingsAvailable from: http://www.environmentalleader.com/category/green-building/#ixzz3H4r5gS40 accessed on 24 October 2014
Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI)The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI) is a third-party organization that provides independent oversight of the professional credentialing and project certification programs related to green building. It was established in 2008 to administer certifications and professional designations within the framework of the US Green Building Council's LEED green building rating systems.
Green cleaningThe use of cleaning products and practices that have less environmental impact than conventional products and practices.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Green infrastructureA soil- and vegetation-based approach to wet weather management that is cost-effective, sustainable, and environmentally friendly. Green infrastructure management approaches and technologies infiltrate, evapotranspire, capture and reuse stormwater to maintain or restore natural hydrologies. (Adapted from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Green powerA subset of renewable energy composed of grid-based electricity produced from renewable energy sources. The environmental attributes of green power include the emissions reduction benefits that result from the substitution of renewable energy sources for conventional power sources.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014; see also www.GBCI.org) accessed on 24 October 2014
Green roofA green roof, or living roof, is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane. It may also include additional layers such as a root barrier and drainage and irrigation systems. Ê See also Extensive vegetated roof and Intensive vegetated roof.Available from (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_roof) accessed 22 October 2014
Green vehiclesVehicles achieving a minimum green score of 45 on the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) annual vehicle rating guide (or a local equivalent for projects outside the U.S.)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
GreenfieldArea that has not been graded, compacted, cleared, or disturbed and that supports (or could support) open space, habitat, or natural hydrology. See also previously disturbed.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Greenhouse EffectTrapping and build-up of heat in the atmosphere (troposphere) near the EarthÕs surface. Some of the heat flowing back toward space from the EarthÕs surface is absorbed by water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and several other gases in the atmosphere and then reradiated back toward the EarthÕs surface. If the atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases rise, the average temperature of the lower atmosphere will gradually increase.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Greenhouse Gas (GHG)Any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases include, but are not limited to, water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3 ), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
GreenwashingGreenwashing is a form of corporate misrepresentation where a company will present a green public image and publicize green initiatives that are false or misleading. A company might release misleading claims or even true green initiatives while privately engaging in environmentally damaging practices. Companies are trying to take advantage of the growing public concern and awareness for environmental issues by promoting an environmentally responsible image. Greenwashing can help companies win over investors (especially those interested in socially responsible investing), create competitive advantage in the marketplace, and convince critics that the company is well-intentioned. There is a profit-driven motive to greenwashing as wellÑ green products are among the fastest growing segments in the market and present a huge potential for growth. The increase in green advertising claims has become a cause for concern at the Federal Trade Commission, who planned to begin re-evaluation of existing green marketing guidelines in 2008.ecomii Green Dictionary A to Z. [online] Available from:Êhttp://www.ecomii.com/ecopedia/greenwashingÊ[accessed 16 December 2009]
GroundskeeperA qualified professional with relevant and sufficient expertise who oversees and is responsible for the establishment and maintenance of landscaping, vegetation and pest control on the project building's grounds.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Group multi-occupant spacesInclude conference rooms, classrooms and other indoor spaces used as places of congregation for presentations, training sessions, etc., where workers engage in a common task and share the lighting and temperature controls. Group multi-occupant spaces do not include open office plans that contain individual workstations.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
HalonsSubstances used in fire-suppression systems and fire extinguishers. These substances deplete the stratospheric ozone layer.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
HardscapeThe inanimate elements of the building landscaping. It includes pavement, roadways, stonewalls, wood and synthetic decking, concrete paths and sidewalks, and concrete, brick, and tile patios.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Hazardous materialAny item or agent (biological, chemical, physical) that has the potential to cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment, either by itself or through interaction with other factors.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Heat Island EffectThe thermal absorption by hardscape, such as dark, nonreflective pavement and buildings, and its subsequent radiation to surrounding areas. Other contributing factors may include vehicle exhaust, air-conditioners, and street equipment. Tall buildings and narrow streets reduce airflow and exacerbate the effect. Ê The Heat Island Effect occurs when dark surfaces absorb the SunÕs energy and re-radiate it throughout the day and night raising the ambient air temperature.Ê The annual mean air temperature of a city with 1 million people or more can be 1.8Ð5.4¡F (1Ð3¡C) warmer than its surroundings. In the evening, the difference can be as high as 22¡F (12¡C). Heat islands can affect communities by increasing summertime peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, heat-related illness and mortality, and water quality.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014 US Environmental Protection Agency. Available from: Êhttp://www.epa.gov/hiri/Ê [accessed 9 September 2012]
High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtersFilters that remove virtually all (99.97%) 0.3-micron particles.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
HighwayA transportation thoroughfare intended for motor vehicles with limited access points, prohibitions on human-powered vehicles, and higher speeds than local roads. A highway generally connects cities and towns.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Historic buildingA building or structure with historic, architectural, engineering, archeological, or cultural significance that is listed or determined to be eligible as a historic structure or building, or as a contributing building or structure in a designated historic district. The historic designation must be made by a local historic preservation review board or similar body, and the structure must be listed in a state register of historic places, be listed in the National Register of Historic Places (or a local equivalent outside the U.S.), or have been determined eligible for listing.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Historic districtA group of buildings, structures, objects, and sites that have been designated or determined to be eligible as historically and architecturally significant, and categorized as either contributing or noncontributing to the historic nature of the district.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Homogeneous materialAn item that consists of only one material throughout or a combination of multiple materials that cannot be mechanically disjointed, excluding surface coatings.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
HVAC systemsHeating, ventilating and air conditioning systems used to provide thermal comfort and ventilation.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs)Refrigerants that do not deplete the stratospheric ozone layer but may have high global warming potential and thus are not environmentally benign.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Hydro energyElectricity produced from the downhill flow of water from rivers and lakes.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
HydrologyAddresses water occurrence, distribution, movement and balances in an ecosystem.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
HydrozoneA group of plantings with similar water needs.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
IlluminanceThe incident luminous flux density on a differential element of surface located at a point and oriented in a particular direction, expressed in lumens per unit area. Since the area involved is differential, it is customary to refer to this as illuminance at a point. The unit name depends on the unit of measurement for area: footcandles if square feet are used for area, and lux if square meters are used. (Adapted from IES) In lay terms, illuminance is a measurement of light striking a surface. It is expressed in footcandles in the U.S. (based on square feet) and in lux in most other countries (based on square meters).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Impervious surfaceAn area of ground that development and building have modified in such a way that precipitation cannot infiltrate downward through the soil. Examples of impervious surfaces include roofs, paved roads and parking areas, sidewalks, and soils that have been compacted either by design or by use.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
ImperviousnessResistance to penetration by a liquid and is calculated as a percentage of area covered by a paving system that does not allow moisture to soak into the ground.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
IncineratorA furnace or container for burning waste materials.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Individual occupant spaceAn area where an occupant performs distinct tasks. Individual occupant spaces may be within multi-occupant spaces and should be treated separately where possible.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Indoor air quality (IAQ)The nature of air that affects the health and well-being of building occupants.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Industrial process waterAny water discharged from a factory setting. Before this water can be used for irrigation, its quality needs to be checked. Saline or corrosive water should not be used for irrigation.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
In-fill siteA site where at least 75% of the land area, exclusive of rights-of-way, within _ mile (800 meters) of the project boundary is previously developed. A street or other right-of-way does not constitute previously developed land; it is the status of property on the other side of right-of-way or the street that matters.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Infiltration(HVAC) uncontrolled inward air leakage to conditioned spaces through unintentional openings in ceilings, floors, and walls from unconditioned spaces or the outdoors caused by the same pressure differences that induce exfiltration. (ASHRAE 62.1Ð2010)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Infrared (thermal) emittanceA value between 0 and 1 (or 0% and 100%) that indicates the ability of a material to shed infrared radiation (heat). A cool roof should have a high thermal emittance. The wavelength range for radiant energy is roughly 5 to 40 micrometers. Most building materials (including glass) are opaque in this part of the spectrum and have an emittance of roughly 0.9, or 90%. Clean, bare metals, such as untarnished galvanized steel, have a low emittance and are the most important exceptions to the 0.9 rule. In contrast, aluminum roof coatings have intermediate emittance levels. (Adapted from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
InpatientAn individual admitted to a medical, surgical, maternity, specialty, or intensive-care unit for a length of stay exceeding 23 hours.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Inpatient unitAny medical, surgical, maternity, specialty, or intensive-care unit where an individual receives care for more than 23 hours.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Integral labelingAn information conveyance system that cannot be easily removed. For furniture, such labeling may include radio frequency identification, engraving, embossing, or other permanent marking containing information on material origin, properties, and date of manufacture.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Integrated pest management (IPM)A method of pest management that protects human health and the surrounding environment, and improves economic returns through the most effective, least-risk option.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Integrated project deliveryAn approach that involves people, systems, and business structures (contractual and legal agreements) and practices. The process harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to improve results, increase value to the owner, reduce waste, and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication, and construction. (Adapted from American Institute of Architects)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM)a comprehensive waste prevention, recycling, composting, and disposal program. An effective ISWM system considers how to prevent, recycle, and manage solid waste in ways that most effectively protect human health and the environment. ISWM involves evaluating local needs and conditions, and then selecting and combining the most appropriate waste management activities for those conditions.
Intensive vegetated roofa roof that, compared with an extensive vegetated roof, has greater soil volume, supports a wider variety of plants (including shrubs and trees), and allows a wider variety of uses (including human access). The depth of the growing medium is an important factor in determining habitat value. The native or adapted plants selected for the roof should support the siteÕs endemic wildlife populations. (Adapted from Green Roofs for Healthy Cities)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Interior floor finishAll the layers applied over a finished subfloor or stairs, including stair treads and risers, ramps, and other walking surfaces. Interior finish excludes building structural members, such as beams, trusses, studs, or subfloors, or similar items. Interior finish also excludes nonfull spread wet coatings or adhesives.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Interior wall and ceiling finishAll the layers comprising the exposed interior surfaces of buildings, including fixed walls, fixed partitions, columns, exposed ceilings, and interior wainscoting, paneling, interior trim or other finish applied mechanically or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface fire resistance, or similar purposes.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Intermodal facilityA venue for the movement of goods in a single loading unit or road vehicle that uses successively two or more modes of transportation without the need to handle the goods themselves.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Internet of Things (IoT)The interconnection via the Internet of computing devices embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to communicate with each other and send and receive data. For buildings, the IoT connects any building system or energy asset that manages building systems or consumes, switches or measures electricity — including meters (water, gas and electric), generators, fuel tanks, automatic transfer switches, chillers, boilers, HVAC control panels, CHP, solar panels, EV chargers and most intelligent mechanical equipment.
Invasive plantNonnative vegetation that has been introduced to an area and that aggressively adapts and reproduces. The plantÕs vigor combined with a lack of natural enemies often leads to outbreak populations. (Adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture). Ê Per GBCI: Both indigenous and exotic species that are characteristically adaptable and aggressive, have a high reproductive capacity and tend to overrun an area. Collectively, they are one of the great threats to biodiversity and ecosystem stability.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014; Also from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Irrigated landRefers to areas where water is delivered through artificial methods (that is, other than rain). Conventional methods utilize pressure to deliver and distribute water through sprinkler heads above the ground. Efficient methods include drip irrigation, a highly efficient type of micro-irrigation that delivers water at a low pressure through buried mains and sub-mains of perforated tubes or emitters.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
IT annual energyElectricity consumption by information technology and telecom equipment which includes servers, networking, and storage equipment over the course of a year.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
LampA device emitting light in a fixture, excluding lamp housing and ballasts. Light-emitting diodes packaged as traditional lamps also meet this definition.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Lamp lifeThe useful span of operation of a source of artificial light, such as bulbs. Lamp life for fluorescent lights is determined by testing three hours on for every 20 minutes off. For high-density discharge lamps, the test is based on 11 hours on for every 20 minutes off. Lamp lifeÊdepends on whether the start ballast is program or instant. This information is published in manufacturersÕ information. Also known as rated average life.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Land trustA private, nonprofit organization that, as all or part of its mission, actively works to conserve land by undertaking or assisting in conservation easement or land acquisition, or by its stewardship of such land or easements (Adapted from Land Trust Alliance).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Land-clearing debris and soilMaterials that are natural (e.g., rock, soil, stone, vegetation). Materials that are man-made (e.g., concrete, brick, cement) are considered construction waste even if they were on site.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
LandfillsWaste disposal sites for solid waste from human activities.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Landscape areaThe area of the total site less the building footprint, hardscape area, water bodies, etc.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Landscape CoefficientThe landscape coefficient (KL) is a constant used to calculate the evapotranspiration rate. It takes into account the species factor, density factor, and microclimate factor of the area. The volume of water lost via evapotranspiration (dependent on species, density, climate) Ð Species * Density * Microclimate.Available at (http://www.leeduser.com/glossary/term/4844) accessed on 22 October 2014
Landscape water requirement (LWR)the amount of water that the site landscape area(s) requires for the siteÕs peak watering month.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Lead-freeA label, defined by U.S. EPA regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act, that allows small amounts of lead in solders, flux, pipes, pipe fittings, and well pumps.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)LEED, or Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design, is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of energy-efficient and environmentally-responsible buildings (also known as green building, green construction or sustainable building), homes and neighborhoods developed by the US Green Building Council (USGBC). Ê The LEED Green Building Rating System is a program that provides third-party verification of the methods and products used in the development and operation of buildings.
Leakage rateThe speed at which an appliance loses refrigerant, measured between refrigerant charges or over 12 months, whichever is shorter. The leakage rate is expressed in terms of the percentage of the appliance's full charge that would be lost over a 12-month period if the rate stabilized. (EPA Clean Air Act, Title VI, Rule 608).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Least-risk pesticideA registered pesticide in the Tier III (lowest toxicity) category, using the San Francisco Hazard Ranking system, or a pesticide that meets the requirements in the San Francisco Pesticide Hazard Screening Protocol and is sold as a self-contained bait or as a crack-and-crevice treatment used in areas inaccessible to building occupants. Rodenticides are never considered least-risk pesticides. (A/k/a Least toxic chemical pesticide)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014; Also from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
LEED Accredited Professionals (AP)Individuals who have successfully completed the LEED professional accreditation exam and satisfied all education and experience requirements.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
LegionellaA waterborne bacterium that causes Legionnaire's disease. It grows in slow-moving or still warm water and can be found in plumbing, showerheads and water storage tanks. Outbreaks of Legionella pneumonia have been attributed to evaporative condensers and cooling towers.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Length of stayThe amount of time a person remains in a health care facility as an admitted patient.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Life-cycle assessmentAn evaluation of the environmental effects of a product from cradle to grave, as defined by ISO 14040Ð2006 and ISO 14044Ð2006.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Life-cycle costing (LCC)A method used to analyze the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process or service.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Life-cycle inventoryA database that defines the environmental effects (inputs and outputs) for each step in a materialÕs or assemblyÕs life cycle. The database is specific to countries and regions within countries.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Light pollutionWaste light from building sites that produces glare, is directed upward to the sky, or is directed off the site. Waste light does not increase nighttime safety, utility, or security and needlessly consumes energy.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Light railTransit service using two- or three-car trains in a right-of-way that is often separated from other traffic modes. Spacing between stations tends to be _ mileor more, and maximum operating speeds are typically 40Ð55 mph (65Ð90 kmh). Light-rail corridors typically extend 10 or more miles (16 kilometers).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Light trespassObtrusive illumination that is unwanted because of quantitative, directional, or spectral attributes. Light trespass can cause annoyance, discomfort, distraction, or loss of visibility.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Living wallliving walls or green walls are self sufficient vertical gardens that are attached to the exterior or interior of a building. They differ from green façades (e.g. ivy walls) in that the plants root in a structural support which is fastened to the wall itself. The plants receive water and nutrients from within the vertical support instead of from the ground. (greenovergrey.com)
Load sheddingAn intentional action by a utility to reduce the load on the system. Load shedding is usually conducted during emergency periods, such as capacity shortages, system instability, or voltage control.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Long-term bicycle storageBicycle parking that is easily accessible to residents and employees and covered to protect bicycles from rain and snow.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Low-cost improvementAn operational improvement, such as a repair, upgrade, or staff training or retraining. In LEED, the project team determines the reasonable upper limit for low-cost improvements based on facility resources and operating budgets.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Low-emitting vehiclesVehicles classified as zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) by the California Air Resources Board.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Low-impact development (LID)An approach to managing rainwater runoff that emphasizes on-site natural features to protect water quality, by replicating the natural land cover hydrologic regime of watersheds, and addressing runoff close to its source. Examples include better site design principles (e.g., minimizing land disturbance, preserving vegetation, minimizing impervious cover), and design practices (e.g., rain gardens, vegetated swales and buffers, permeable pavement, rainwater harvesting, soil amendments). These are engineered practices that may require specialized design assistance.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
LumenA unit of luminous flux equal to the light emitted in a unit sold angle by a uniform point source of one candle intensity.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Makeup waterWater that is fed into a cooling tower system or evaporative condenser to replace water lost through evaporation, drift, bleed-off, or other causes.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Manage (rainwater) on siteTo capture and retain a specified volume of rainfall to mimic natural hydrologic function. Examples of rainwater management include strategies that involve evapotranspiration, infiltration, and capture and reuse.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Management staffEmployees or contractors involved in operating and maintaining the building and site.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Marine Stewardship Council's Blue Eco-labelCertification that applies to products that meets the MSC principles and criteria for sustainable fishing, including sustainable harvest of the target stock, acceptable impact of the fishery on the ecosystem, effectiveness of the fisher management system (including all biological, technological, economic, social, environmental and commercial aspects), and compliance with relevant local and national laws and standards and international understandings and agreements.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Mass transitMovement of large groups of persons in a single vehicle, such as a bus or train car.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Master plan boundaryThe limits of a site master plan. The master plan boundary includes the projectÊarea and may include all associated buildings and sites outside of the LEED project boundary. The master plan boundary considers future sustainable use, expansion, and contraction.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Material safety data sheets (MSDS)Contain product information on chemicals, chemical compounds and chemical mixtures. MSDS can also include instructions for the safe handling, storage and disposal of products.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Mean Lumen outputA measurement of a sourceÕs emitted light derived from industry standards, taken with an instant-start ballast that has a ballast factor of 1.0 as measured at 40% of lamp life (except for T-5 lamps, which use a program-start ballast)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Mechanical ventilationVentilation provided by machine-powered equipment, such as motor-driven fans and blowers, but not by devices such as wind-driven turbine ventilators and mechanically operated windows.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Medical furnishingAn item of furniture designed for use in health care. Examples include surgical tables; procedure, supply, and mobile technology carts; lifting and transfer aids; supply closet carts and shelving; and overbed tables.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Metering controlA regulator that limits the flow time of water, generally a manual-on and automatic-off device, most commonly installed on lavatory faucets and showersAvailable from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Methane (CH4)A hydrocarbon that is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential most recently estimated at 23 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Methane is produced through anaerobic (without oxygen) decomposition of waste in landfills, animal digestion, decomposition of animal wastes, production and distribution of natural gas and petroleum, coal production, and incomplete fossil fuel combustion. The GWP is from the IPCCÕs Third Assessment Report (TAR). For more information visitÊEPAÕs Methane site.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
MethylmercuryAny of various toxic compounds of mercury containing the complex CH3Hg-; it often occurs in pollutants and bioaccumulates in living organisms, especially in higher levels of a food chain.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Microclimate factorA coefficient used in calculating the landscape coefficient, it adjusts the Evapotranspiration Rate to reflect the climate of the immediate area.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Micro-irrigationInvolves irrigation systems with small sprinklers and microjets or drippers designed to apply small volumes of water. The sprinklers and microjets are installed within a few centimeters of the ground, drippers are laid on or below grade.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV)A filter rating established by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 52.2-1999, Method of Testing General Ventilation Air Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size). The MERV efficiency categories range from 1 (very low efficiency) to 16 (very high).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Mixed-mode ventilationA combination of natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation, which allows the building to be ventilated mechanically or naturally or, at times, both mechanically and naturally simultaneously.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Mixed paperWhite and colored paper, envelopes, forms, file folders, tablets, flyers, cereal boxes, wrapping paper, catalogs, magazines, phone books, and photos.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Modular and movable caseworkShelving and cabinetry designed to be easily installed, moved, or reconfigured. In a retail setting, items that are movable but semi-permanently attached using mechanical fastening systems for operational use are considered furniture and not base building elements (e.g., a table or display bolted to the floor, or shelving attached to a wall).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Mounting heightThe distance between ground level (or the workplane) and the center of the luminaire (light fixture); the height at which a luminaire is installed.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Movable furniture and partitionsItems that can be moved by the users without the need of tools or assistance from special trades and facilities management.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Multi-tenant complexA site that was master-planned for the development of stores, restaurants and other businesses. Retailers may share some services and common areas.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
NAED codeA unique five- or six-digit number used to identify specific lamps, used by the National Association of Electrical Distributors.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Native vegetation and adapted vegetationA species that originates in, and is characteristic of, a particular region and ecosystem without direct or indirect human actions. Native species have evolved together with other species within the geography, hydrology, and climate of that region; plants indigenous to a locality (native) or plants that are adapted to the local climate and are not considered invasive species or noxious weeds (adapted); they require limited irrigation following planting, do not require active maintenance such as mowing and provide habitat value.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014; Also from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Natural areasNative or adapted vegetation or other ecologically appropriate fixtures.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Natural capitalThe world's stocks of natural assets which include geology, soil, air, water and all living things. It is from this natural capital that humans derive a wide range of services, often called ecosystem services, which make human life possible.Available from (www.naturalcapitalforum.com/what-is-natural-capital) accessed on 30 October 2014
Natural GasUnderground deposits of gases consisting of 50 to 90 percent methane (CH4) and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10).U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Natural refrigerantA compound that is not manmade and is used for cooling. Such substances generally have much lower potential for atmospheric damage than manufactured chemical refrigerants. Examples include water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Natural Resources Conservation Service soils delineationa U.S.-based soil survey that shows the boundaries of different soil types and special soil features on the site.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Natural site hydrologyThe natural land cover function of water occurrence, distribution, movement, and balance.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Natural ventilationVentilation provided by thermal, wind or diffusion effects through doors, windows or other intentional openings in the building.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Negative-pressure smoking roomsRooms with mechanical airflow devices (such as exhaust fans) to lower air pressure below that of surrounding areas. The negative pressure causes air to flow from surrounding areas into the space to provide ventilation.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Net present valueThe total discounted value of all cash inflows and outflows from a project or investment.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Net usable program areaThe sum of all interior areas in the project available to house the projectÕs program. It does not include areas for building equipment, vertical circulation, or structural components.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Non-occupied spacesRooms used by maintenance personnel and not open to occupants. Examples include janitorial closets, cleaning supply storage and equipment rooms.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Non-patient areaA public space, diagnostic or treatment area, ambulatory unit, or any other space in a health care facility that is not for individuals who have been admitted for care.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Non-potable waterWater that does not meet drinking water standardsAvailable from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Non-regularly occupied spaceAn area that people pass through or an area used for focused activities an average of less than one hour per person per day. The one-hour timeframe is continuous and should be based on the time a typical occupant uses the space. For spaces that are not used daily, the one-hour timeframe should be based on the time a typical occupant spends in the space when it is in use.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Non-water toilet systemsDry plumbing fixtures and fittings that contain and treat human waste via microbiological processes.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Non-water urinalA plumbing fixture having a water flush with a trap that contains a layer of buoyant liquid that floats above the urine, blocking sewer gas and odors.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Occupant controlA system or switch that a person in the space can directly access and use. Examples include a task light, an open switch, and blinds. A temperature sensor,Êphoto sensor, or centrally controlled system is not occupant controlled.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Occupiable spaceAn enclosed space intended for human activities, excluding those spaces that are intended primarily for other purposes, such as storage rooms and equipment rooms, and that are occupied only occasionally and for short periods of time (ASHRAE 62.1Ð2010).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Occupied spaceEnclosed space intended for human activities, excluding those spaces that are intended primarily for other purposes, such as storage rooms and equipment rooms, and that are only occupied occasionally and for short periods of time. Occupied spaces are further classified as regularly occupied or nonregularly occupied spaces based on the duration of the occupancy, individual or multi-occupant based on the quantity of occupants, and densely or non-densely occupied spaces based on the concentration of occupants in the space.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Off-site salvaged materialsMaterials recovered from an off-site source and reused.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
On-demand heatersHeaters that heat water only when it is needed and then apply only the amount of heating required to satisfy the user's immediate needs.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
On-site wastewater treatmentThe transport, storage, treatment, and disposal of wastewater generated on the project site.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Ongoing commissioningA continuous process that methodically identifies and corrects system problems to maintain optimal building performance, the process includes regular measurement and comparative analysis of building energy data over time.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Ongoing consumableA product that has a low cost per unit and is regularly used and replaced in the course of business. Examples include paper, toner cartridges, binders, batteries, and desk accessories. Also known as ongoing purchases.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Open-grid pavement systemPavements that consist of loose substrates supported by a grid of a more structurally sound grid or webbing. Pervious concrete and porous asphalt are not considered open grid as they are considered bounded materials. Unbounded, loose substrates do not transfer and store heat like bound and compacted materials do.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Operations and maintenance (O&M) planA plan that specifies major system operating parameters and limits, maintenance procedures and schedules, and documentation methods necessary to demonstrate proper operation and maintenance of an approved emissions control device or system.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
OrganicUSDA Certified Organic foods and farms cannot use most synthetic or petroleum derived pesticides and fertilizers, any irradiation, or sewage sludge. No genetic engineering is allowed. Organic farmers use crop rotation, tilling and natural fertilizers, such as compost.A USDA-accredited certifier verifies that a farmer or producer meets the standards of the USDA National Organic Program. ecomii Green Dictionary A to Z. [online] Available from:Êhttp://www.ecomii.com/ecopedia/organicÊ[accessed 16 December 2009]
Ornamental luminaireA luminaire intended for illuminating portions of the circulation network that also serves an ornamental function, in addition to providing optics that effectively deliver street lighting, and has a decorative or historical period appearance.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Outdoor airThe ambient air that enters a building either through a ventilation system (with intentional openings) for natural ventilation or by infiltration. (ASHRAE 62.1-2004).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
OutpatientA patient who is not hospitalized for 24 hours or more but who visits a hospital, clinic, or associated healthcare facility for diagnosis or treatment.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
OwnerA person directly employed by the organization holding title to the project building and recognized by law as having rights, responsibilities and ultimate control over the project building.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Owner's Operating RequirementsSee Building Operating PlanAvailable from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Owner's project requirementsA written document that details the ideas, concepts, and criteria determined by the owner to be important to the success of the project.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Ozone (O3)Ozone, the triatomic form of oxygen (O3), is a gaseous atmospheric constituent. In the troposphere, it is created both naturally and by photochemical reactions involving gases resulting from human activities (photochemical smog). In high concentrations, tropospheric ozone can be harmful to a wide range of living organisms. Tropospheric ozone acts as a greenhouse gas. In the stratosphere, ozone is created by the interaction between solar ultraviolet radiation and molecular oxygen (O2). Stratospheric ozone plays a decisive role in the stratospheric radiative balance. Depletion of stratospheric ozone, due to chemical reactions that may be enhanced by climate change, results in an increased ground-level flux of ultraviolet (UV-) B radiation. SeeÊatmosphere,Êultraviolet radiation.4U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Ozone LayerThe layer of ozone that begins approximately 15 km above Earth and thins to an almost negligible amount at about 50 km, shields the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. The highest natural concentration of ozone (approximately 10 parts per million by volume) occurs in the stratosphere at approximately 25 km above Earth. The stratospheric ozone concentration changes throughout the year as stratospheric circulation changes with the seasons. Natural events such as volcanoes and solar flares can produce changes in ozone concentration, but man-made changes are of the greatest concern. Seestratosphere,Êultraviolet radiation.6U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Parking footprintThe area of the site that is occupied by the parking structure.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Partially shieldedAn exterior light fixture that is shielded so that the lower edge of the shield is at or below the centerline of the lamp to minimize light emitted above the horizontal plane.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Parts per Million (ppm)Number of parts of a chemical found in one million parts of a particular gas, liquid, or solid. SeeÊconcentration.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Patient positionA patient bed, infusion chair, recovery room bay, or other location where a patient receives clinical care.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Peak demandThe maximum electricity load at a specific point in time or over a period of time.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Peak watering monthThe month with the greatest deficit between evapotranspiration and rainfall. This is the month when the plants in the siteÕs region potentially require the most supplemental water typically a mid-summer month. (Sustainable Sites Initiative).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Permanent interior obstructionA structure that cannot be moved by the user without tools or assistance from special trades and facilities management. Examples include lab hoods, fixed partitions, demountable opaque full- or partial-height partitions, some displays, and equipment.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Permanent peak load shiftingThe transfer of energy consumption to off-peak hours, when demand for power is lower and energy is therefore less expensive.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Permeable pavementA paved surface that allows water runoff to infiltrate into the ground.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Persistent bio-accumulative toxic chemicala substance that poses a long-term risk to both humans and the environment because it remains in the environment for long periods, increases in concentration as it moves up the food chain, and can travel far from the source of contamination. Often these substances can become more potent and harmful to ecosystems the longer they persist. See U.S. EPAÕs website on persistent bio-accumulative toxic chemicals, www.epa.gov/pbt/.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
PerviousnessThe percentage of area covered by a paving system that is open and allows moisture to soak into the earth below the paving system.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Phantom LoadA phantom load is the electricity consumed by an appliance or electrical device when it is not actively being used or is in the ÒoffÓ mode. Although these devices, or Òpower vampiresÓ appear to be off, they continue to draw electricity from outlets to keep their circuits instantly ready for the next time they are turned on. Power vampires only consume a few watts when not in use, but throughout a day and over an entire year, a few watts can add up to almost 20% of a homeÕs power.To prevent power vampires from drawing phantom loads and raising your electric bill, unplug any devices that are not in use and do not require power. Common power vampires include rechargeable battery chargers (for laptop, phone, music player, etc.), TVs, DVD players and VCRs, cable boxes and modems, answering machines, fax machines, and printers. In general, any device that has a power adapter, or Òpower brick,Ó or feels warm after it has been switched off for a while is a power vampire. Using inexpensive power strips that can be shut off when devices are not in use can also prevent phantom loads. ecomii Green Dictionary A to Z. [online] Available from:Êhttp://www.ecomii.com/ecopedia/phantom-loadÊ[accessed 16 December 2009]
Photovoltaic or solar energyElectricity from photovoltaic cells that convert the energy in sunlight into electricity.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
PicogramOne trillionth of a gramAvailable from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Picograms per lumen-hourA measure of the amount of mercury in a lamp per unit of light delivered over its useful life.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Place of respiteAn area that connects healthcare patients, visitors, and staff to health benefits of the natural environment. (Adapted from Green Guide for Health Care Places of Respite Technical Brief).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Plug loadThe electrical current drawn by all equipment that is connected to the electrical system via a wall outlet (a/k/a receptacle load).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Plumbing fixtures and fittingsReceptacles, devices, or appliances that are either permanently or temporarily connected to the building's water distribution system and receive liquid or liquid-borne wastes and discharge wastewater, liquid-borne waste materials, or sewage either directly or indirectly to the drainage system of the premises. This includes water closets, urinals, lavatories, sinks, showers and drinking fountains.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
PollutantsEmissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2),nitrogen oxides (NOx), mercury (Hg), small particulates (PM25) and large particulates (PM10).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Post-consumer recycled contentWaste generated by households or commercial, industrial and institutional facilities in their role as end users of a product that can no longer be used for its intended purpose.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Post-consumer fiberPaper, paperboard, and fibrous wastes that are collected from municipal solid waste streams.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Post-consumer materialRecycled from consumer waste.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Potable waterWater that meets or exceeds U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water quality standards (or a local equivalent outside the U.S.) and is approved for human consumption by the state or local authorities having jurisdiction; it may be supplied from wells or municipal water systems.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Power distribution unit outputThe electrical power from a device that allocates power to and serves information technology (IT) equipment. Power distribution unit (PDU) output does not include efficiency losses of any transformation that occurs within the PDU, but it can include downstream non-IT ancillary devices installed in IT racks, such as fans. If the PDU system supports non-IT equipment (e.g., computer room air-conditioning units, computer room air handlers, in-row coolers), this equipment must be metered and subtracted from the PDU output reading. The metering approach should be consistent with the metering required for the power usage efficiency (PUE) category (e.g., continuous consumption metering for PUE categories 1, 2, and 3).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Power utilization effectiveness (PUE)A measure of how efficiently a data center uses its power; specifically, how much power is used by computing equipment rather than for cooling and other overhead.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Powered floor maintenance equipmentElectric and battery-powered floor buffers and burnishers. It does not include equipment used in wet applications.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
PPMStands for Parts per millionAvailable from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Pre-consumer recycled contentMatter diverted from the waste stream during the manufacturing process, determined as the percentage of material, by weight. Examples include planer shavings, sawdust, bagasse, walnut shells, culls, trimmed materials, overissue publications, and obsolete inventories. The designation excludes rework, regrind, or scrap materials capable of being reclaimed within the same process that generated them (ISO 14021). Formerly known as postindustrial content.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Preferred parkingThe parking spots closest to the main entrance of a building (exclusive of spaces designated for handicapped persons). For employee parking, it refers to the spots that are closest to the entrance used by employees.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Premature obsolescenceThe wearing out or disuse of components or materials whose service life exceeds their design life. For example, a material with a potential life of 30 years is intentionally designed to last only 15 years, such that its remaining 15 years of service is potentially wasted. In contrast, components whose service life is the same as their expected use are utilized to their maximum potential.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Preventive maintenanceRoutinely scheduled equipment inspection, cleaning, and repair conducted to detect and prevent equipment failure and keep materials and systems in working order.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Previously developedAltered by paving, construction, and/or land use that would typically have required regulatory permitting to have been initiated (alterations may exist now or in the past). Land that is not previously developed and landscapes altered by current or historical clearing or filling, agricultural or forestry use, or preserved natural area use are considered undeveloped land. The date of previous development permit issuance constitutes the date of previous development, but permit issuance in itself does not constitute previous development.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Previously developed siteA site that, prior to the project, consisted of at least 75% previously developed land.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Previously disturbedAreas that have been graded, compacted, cleared, previously developed, or disturbed in any way. These are areas that do not qualify as 'greenfield.ÕAvailable from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Prime farmlandland that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops and that is available for these uses, as determined by the U.S. Department of AgricultureÕs Natural Resources Conservation Service (a U.S.-based methodology that sets criteria for highly productive soil). For a complete description of what qualifies as prime farmland, see U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 7, Volume 6, Parts 400 to 699, Section 657.5.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Private or private useApplies to plumbing fixtures in residences and apartments, private bathrooms in hotels and hospitals and restrooms in commercial establishments, these fixtures are intended for the use of a family or individual.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Private meterA device that measures water flow and is installed downstream from the public water supply meter or as part of an on-site water system maintained by the building management team.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Process energyPower resources consumed in support of a manufacturing, industrial, or commercial process other than conditioning spaces and maintaining comfort and amenities for building occupants of a building. It may include refrigeration equipment, cooking and food preparation, clothes washing, and other major support appliances. (ASHRAE).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Process loadThe load on a building resulting from the consumption or release of process energy (ASHRAE) a/k/a Unregulated load.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Process waterwater that is used for industrial processes and building systems, such as cooling towers, boilers, and chillers. It can also refer to water used in operational processes, such as dishwashing, clothes washing, and ice making.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Product (permanently installed building product)An item that arrives on the project site either as a finished element ready for installation or as a component to another item assembled on-site. The product unit is defined by the functional requirement for use in the project; this includes the physical components and services needed to serve the intended function of the permanently installed building product. In addition, similar product within a specification, each contributes as a separate product.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Project BuildingThe real property, including an occupied and operational building(s) and the associated grounds that is registered for and actively pursuing LEED certification.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Property managerA person directly employed by the organization who oversees operations, maintenance and upkeep of the project building on behalf of the owner or serves as the primary liaison between the owner and project building tenants.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Protected Harvest certificationCertification standards that reflect the unique growing requirements and environmental consideration of each crop and bio-region. Each crop- and region-specific standard is divided into the following three parts: production, toxicity and chain-of-custody.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Public or public useApplies to plumbing fixtures in all buildings or structures that are not defined as private or private use. If the classification for public or private use is unclear, project teams shall default to public-use flow rates.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Public water supply (PWS)A system for the provision to the public of water for human consumption through pipes or other constructed conveyances. To be considered public, such system must have at least 15 service connections or regularly serve at least 25 individuals. (Adapted from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Rainwater harvestingThe capture, diversion, and storage of rain for future beneficial use. Typically, a rain barrel or cistern stores the water; other components include the catchment surface and conveyance system. The harvested rainwater can be used for irrigation.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Rainwater Harvest certificationA certification that is awarded to farms that protect wildlife by planting trees, control erosion, limit agrochemicals, protect native vegetation, hire local workers and pay fair wages.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Rapidly renewable materialsAgricultural products, both fiber and animal, that take 10 years or less to grow or raise and can be harvested in an ongoing and sustainable fashion.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Raw materialThe basic substance from which products are made, such as concrete, glass, gypsum, masonry, metals, recycled materials (e.g., plastics and metals), oil (petroleum, polylactic acid), stone, agrifiber, bamboo, and wood.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Recirculated airAir removed from a space and reused as supply air, delivered by mechanical or natural ventilation.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Reclaimed waterWastewater that has been treated and purified for reuse.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
RecommissioningApplies to buildings that were previously commissioned as part of new construction or retrocommissioning. Recommissioning involves periodic conducting of the original commissioning tests from the commissioning or retrocommissioning process to ensure that the original results are maintained over time.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Recovered fiberIncludes both postconsumer fiber and waste fiber from the manufacturing process.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Recycled contentDefined in accordance with the International Organization of Standards document ISO 14021 Ð Environmental labels and declarations Ð Self-declared environmental claims (Type II environmental labeling). Recycled content refers to the portion of materials used in a product that have been diverted from the solid waste stream. If those materials are diverted during the manufacturing process, they are referred to as pre-consumer recycled content (sometimes referred to as post-industrial). If they are diverted after consumer use, they are post-consumer.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014; and http://www2.buildinggreen.com/article/defining-recycled-content accessed 23 October 2014.
RecyclingCollecting and reprocessing a resource so it can be used again. An example is collecting aluminum cans, melting them down, and using the aluminum to make new cans or other aluminum products.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
Reference Evapotranspiration RateThe amount of water lost from a specific vegetated surface with no moisture limitation. Turf grass with height of 120 mm is the reference vegetation. Amount of water necessary to grow a reference plant.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 20 October 2014
Reference soilA soil native to the project site, as described in Natural Resources Conservation Service soil surveys (or a local equivalent survey outside the United States), or undisturbed native soils within the projectÕs region that have native vegetation, topography, and soil textures similar to the project site. For project sites with no existing soil, reference soils are defined as undisturbed native soils within the projectÕs region that support appropriate native plant species similar to those intended for the new project.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
ReforestationPlanting of forests on lands that have previously contained forests but that have been converted to some other use.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (December 1997) Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms. [online] Washington, D.C. Available from:Êhttp://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/Ê[accessed 16 December 2009]
RefrigerantsThe working fluids of refrigeration cycles that absorb heat from a reservoir at low temperatures and reject heat at higher temperatures.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Refurbished materialAn item that has completed its life cycle and is prepared for reuse without substantial alteration of its form. Refurbishing involves renovating, repairing, restoring, or generally improving the appearance, performance, quality, functionality, or value of a product.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Regular building occupantA worker who either has a permanent office or workstation in the project building or typically spends 10 hours per week or more in the project building. For a residential building, this includes all persons who live in the building.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Regularly occupied spaceAn area where one or more individuals normally spend time (more than one hour per person per day on average) seated or standing as they work, study, or perform other focused activities inside a building. The one-hour timeframe is continuous and should be based on the time a typical occupant uses the space. For spaces that are not used daily, the one-hour timeframe should be based on the time a typical occupant spends in the space when it is in use.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Regularly used exterior entranceA frequently used means of gaining access to a building. Examples include the main building entrance as well as any building entryways attached to parking structures, underground parking garages, underground pathways, or outside spaces. Atypical entrances, emergency exits, atriums, connections between concourses, and interior spaces are not included.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Regulated loadAny building end use that has either a mandatory or a prescriptive requirement in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1Ð2010.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Relative humidityThe ratio of partial density of water vapor in the air to the saturation density of water vapor at the same temperature and the same total pressure.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Remanufactured productAn item that has been repaired or adjusted and returned to service. A remanufactured product can be expected to perform as if it were new.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Renewable energyEnergy sources that are not depleted by use. Examples include energy from the sun, wind, and small (low-impact) hydropower, plus geothermal energy and wave and tidal systems. Ê One issue with bioenergy is the amount of fossil fuel energy used to produce it.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014. Also from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Renewable energy credit (REC)A tradable commodity representing proof that a unit of electricity was generated from a renewable resource. RECs are sold separately from electricity itself and thus allow the purchase of green power by a user of conventionally generated electricity.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Replacement valueThe cost of an item purchased from a retail vendor, reflecting its age and condition.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
ResilienceThe ability to recover from or adjust easily to misfortune or change. The ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, or more successfully adapt to actual or potential adverse effects
RetrocommissioningInvolves developing a building operating plan that identifies current building operating requirements and needs, conducting tests to determine whether the building and fundamental systems are performing optimally in accordance with the plan, and making any necessary repairs or changes (a/k/a Existing building commissioning)Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
RetrofitAny change to an existing facility, such as the addition or removal of equipment or a required adjustment, connection or disconnection of equipment.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Return airAir removed from conditioned spaces and either re-circulated in the building or exhausted to the outside.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
ReuseThe reemployment of materials in the same or a related capacity as their original application, thus extending the lifetime of materials that would otherwise be discarded. Reuse includes the recovery and reemployment of materials recovered from existing building or construction sites. Also known as salvage.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Reused areaThe total area of the building structure, core, and envelope that existed in the prior condition and remains in the completed design.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Revenue-grade meterA measurement tool designed to meet strict accuracy standards required by code or law. Utility meters are often called revenue grade because their measurement directly results in a charge to the customer.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
RideshareA transit service in which individuals travel together in a passenger car or small van that seats at least four people. It can include human-powered conveyances, which must accommodate at least two people. It must include an enclosed passenger seating area, fixed route service, fixed fare structure, regular operation, and the ability to pick up multiple riders.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Salvaged materialA construction component recovered from existing buildings or construction sites and reused. Common salvaged materials include structural beams and posts, flooring, doors, cabinetry, brick, and decorative items.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
School authorityThe authority responsible for decision making about school operations, districts, personnel, financing, and future development. Examples include school boards, local governments, and religious institutions.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Scope 1 emissionsDirect greenhouse gas emissions from sources owned or controlled by the entity, such as emissions from fossil fuels burned on site. Electricity produced on site through the burning of fossil fuels is measured by the Scope 1 emissions associated with that fossil fuel.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Scope 2 emissionsIndirect greenhouse gas emissions associated with the generation of purchased electricity, heating/cooling, or steam off site, through a utility provider for the entityÕs consumption.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
sDA300/50%The percentage of analysis points across the analysis area that meet or exceed this 300 lux value for at least 50% of the analysis period.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
SedimentationThe addition of soil particles to waterbodies by natural and human-related activities. Ê Sedimentation often decreases water quality and can accelerate the aging process of lakes, rivers and streams.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Sequence of operationsA detailed system-level documentation for each base building system that defines which operational states are desired under which conditions: running vs. idle systems; full-load or part-load operation; staging or cycling of compressors, fans or pumps; proper valve positions; desired system water temperatures; target duct static air pressures depending on other variables (e.g., outside air temperatures, room air temperatures, and/or relative humidity); and any reset schedules or occupancy schedules.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Server inputThe information technology (IT) load as measured at the point of connection (e.g., power receptacle) of the IT device to the electrical power system. Server input captures the actual power load of the IT device exclusive of any power distribution losses and non-IT loads (e.g., rack-mounted fans).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Service lifeThe assumed length of time that a building, product, or assembly will be operational for the purposes of a life-cycle assessmentAvailable from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
SetpointsNormal ranges for building systems and indoor environmental quality, outside which action is taken.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Shared multi-occupant spaceA place of congregation, or where occupants pursue overlapping or collaborative tasks.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Shell spaceAn area designed to be fitted out for future expansion. Shell space is enclosed by theÊbuilding envelope but otherwise left unfinished.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Short-term bicycle storageNon-enclosed bicycle parking typically used by visitors for a period of two hours or less.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Simple box energy modeling analysisAlso known as Òbuilding-massing model energy analysis,Ó a simple base-case energy analysis that informs the team about the buildingÕs likely distribution of energy consumption and is used to evaluate potential project energy strategies. A simple box analysis uses a basic, schematic building form.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Simple paybackThe amount of time it will take to recover the initial investment through savings. The simple payback (in years) can be calculating by dividing the final cost by annual savings.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Site areaThe total area within the project boundary of the applicant building, and includes all areas of the property, both constructed areas and non-constructed areas. The open space of the site area is the portion not covered by the building footprint.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Site assessmentAn evaluation of an areaÕsÊaboveground and subsurface characteristics, including its structures, geology, and hydrology. Site assessments typically help determine whether contamination has occurred and the extent and concentration of any release of pollutants. Remediation decisions rely on information generated during site assessments.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Site energyThe amount of heat and electricity consumed by a building, as reflected in utility bills.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Site master planAn overall design or development concept for the project and associated (or potentially associated) buildings and sites. The plan considers future sustainable use, expansion, and contraction. The site master plan is typically illustrated, with building plans (if applicable), site drawings of planned phased development, and narrative descriptions.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Soft spaceAn area whose functions can be easily changed. For example, hospital administrative offices could be moved so that this soft space could be converted to a laboratory. In contrast, a lab with specialized equipment and infrastructure would be difficult to relocate.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
SoftscapeThe elements of a landscape that consist of live, horticultural elements.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Solar garden / community renewable energy systemShared solar array or other renewable energy system with grid-connected subscribers who receive credit for the use of renewables using virtual net meteringÊ(Adapted from solargardens.org)Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Solar reflectance (SR)The fraction of solar energy that is reflected by a surface on a scale of 0 to 1. Black paint has a solar reflectance of 0; white paint (titanium dioxide) has a solar reflectance of 1. The standard technique for its determination uses spectrophotometric measurements, with an integrating sphere to determine the reflectance at each wavelength. The average reflectance is then determined by an averaging process, using a standard solar spectrum, as documented by ASTM Standards E903 and E892. The ratio of the reflected solar energy to the incoming solar energy over wavelengths of approximately 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers. A reflectance of 100% means that all of the energy striking a reflecting surface is reflected back into the atmosphere; none of the energy is absorbed by the surface. The best standard technique for its determination uses spectro-photometric measurements with an integrating sphere to determine the reflectance at each different wavelength. An averaging process using a standard solar spectrum then determines the average reflectance (see ASTM Standard E903).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014 Also from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Solar reflectance index (SRI)A measure of the constructed surfaceÕs ability to stay cool in the sun by reflecting solar radiation and emitting thermal radiation. It is defined such that a standard black surface (initial solar reflectance 0.05, initial thermal emittance 0.90) has an initial SRI of 0, and a standard white surface (initial solar reflectance 0.80, initial thermal emittance 0.90) has an initial SRI of 100. To calculate the SRI for a given material, obtain its solar reflectance and thermal emittance via the Cool Roof Rating Council Standard (CRRC-1). SRI is calculated according to ASTM E 1980. Calculation of the aged SRI is based on the aged tested values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance. For example, a standard black surface has a temperature rise of 14.6oF (8.1oC). Once the maximum temperature rise of a given material has been computed, the SRI can be computed by interpolating between the values for white and black.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014; Also from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014.
Solar thermal systemsSystems that collect or absorb sunlight via solar collectors to heat water that is then circulated to the building's hot water tank. The hot water can be sued to warm swimming pools or provide domestic hot water for residential and commercial use.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Sound level coverageA set of uniformity criteria that ensure consistent intelligibility and directionality of audible frequencies for all occupants within a space.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Source energyThe total amount of raw fuel that is required to operate a building. It incorporates all transmission, delivery and production losses, thereby enabling a complete assessment of energy efficiency in a building.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Source reductionA decrease in the amount of unnecessary material brought into a building in order to produce less waste. For example, purchasing products with less packaging is a source reduction strategy.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Spatial daylight autonomy (sDA)A metric describing annual sufficiency of ambient daylight levels in interior environments. It is defined as the percentage of an analysis area (the area where calculations are performed, typically across an entire space) that meets a minimum daylight illuminance level for a specified fraction of the operating hours per year (i.e., the Daylight AutonomyÊvalue following Reinhart & Walkenhorst, 2001).ÊThe illluminance level and time fraction are included as subscripts, as in sDA300,50%.ÊThe sDA value is expressed as a percentage of area.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Species factorA coefficient used to adjust the Evapotranspiration Rate to reflect the biological features of a specific plant species.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Speech privacyA condition in which speech is unintelligible to casual listeners (ANSI T1.523Ð2001).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Speech spectraThe distribution of acoustic energy as a function of frequency for human speech.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
StreetcarA transit service with small, individual rail cars. Spacing between stations is uniformly short and ranges from every block to _ mile, and operating speeds are primarily 10Ð30 mph (15Ð50 kmh). Streetcar routes typically extend 2Ð5 miles (3-8 kilometers).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Standard operating procedures (SOPs)Detailed, written instructions documenting a method to achieve uniformity of performance.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Stormwater runoffWater from precipitation that flows over surfaces into sewer systems or waterbodies. All precipitation that leaves a project site boundaries on the surface is considered stormwater runoff.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Stratified random samplingA method that groups members of a population into discrete subgroups, based on characteristics that may affect their responses to the survey. For example, a survey of building occupants' commuting behavior might separate people by income level and commuting distance. To yield representative results, the survey should sample the subgroups according to their proportions in the total population.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
StructureElements carrying either vertical or horizontal loads (e.g., walls, roofs, and floors) that are considered structurally sound and nonhazardous.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
SubmeteringA method of determining the proportion of energy use within a building attributable to specific mechanical end uses or subsystems (i.e. the heating subsystem of an HVAC system).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Substantial completionSubstantial completion of the building's indoor plumbing system is defined as either initial building construction or the last plumbing renovation of all or part of the building that included 100% retrofit of all plumbing fixtures and fittings as part of the renovation.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
SustainableThe ability to be sustained, supported, upheld or confirmed; able to be maintained at a certain rate or level; of, relating to, or being a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged; the quality of not being harmful to the environment or depleting natural resources, and thereby supporting long-term ecological balance.From www.merriam-webdster.com; www.dictionary.com accessed on 21 October 2014
Sustainable developmentDevelopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: the concept ofneeds, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea oflimitationsÊimposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs."
From (https://www.iisd.org/sd/) accessed on 21 October 2014
Sustainable purchasing policyA policy that gives preference to products that have little to no negative impacts on the environment and society throughout its life cycle, and also gives preference to those products that are supplied by companies whom also have little to no negative environmental and social impacts. The sustainable purchasing policy commits the organization to an overarching course of action which empowers staff working at the operations level.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Sustainable purchasing programThe development, adoption and implementation of a procurement strategy which culminates in the purchase of products that have little to no negative impacts on the environment and society through its life cycle or that are supplied by companies whom also have little to no negative environmental and social impacts. The program is an operational working strategy aligned and in support of an organization's sustainable purchasing policy.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Systems manualProvides the information needed to understand, operate, and maintain the systems and assemblies within a building.ÊIt expands the scope of the traditional operating and maintenance documentation and is compiled of multiple documents developed during the commissioning process, such as the ownerÕs project requirements, operation and maintenance manuals, and sequences of operation.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Systems Narrative introA general description of each of the following types of base building systems installed in the project building: space heating, space cooling, ventilation, domestic water heating, humidification and/or dehumidification, and lighting. The narrative includes summaries of central plant, distribution and terminal units, as applicable. It also includes all the controls associated with these systems - central automatic, local automatic, or occupant control. It accounts for any differences in system types for different portions of the project building - for different floors, for interior vs. perimeter zones, etc. The systems narrative does not need to list each base building system individually (i.e., not each and every chiller) but does describe the distinct types of systems listed above (i.e., all chillers having the same basic design and specifications). Other types of systems than those listed above - process equipment, office equipment, plumbing systems, fire protection systems - may be included in the narrative if desired but are not required.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Systematic samplingA method of surveying every xth person in the population, using a constant skip interval. It relies on random sampling order or an order with no direct relationship to the variable under analysis (alphabetical order when sampling for commute behavior).Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Technical Release (TR) 55An approach to hydrology in which watersheds are modeled to calculate storm runoff volume, peak rate of discharge, hydrographs, and storage volumes, developed by the former USDA Soil Conservation Service.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
TelecommutingWorking by using telecommunications and computer technology from a location other than the usual or traditional place of business - for example, from home, a satellite office or a telework center.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Thermal comfortA condition experienced by building occupants expressing satisfaction with the thermal environment.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Thermal emittanceThe ratio of the radiant heat flux emitted by a specimen to that emitted by a blackbody radiator at the same temperature (adapted from Cool Roof Rating Council).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Three-year aged SRSRI value a solar reflectance or solar reflectance index rating that is measured after three years of weather exposure.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Time-of-use pricingAn arrangement in which customers pay higher fees to use utilities during peak time periods and lower fees during off-peak time periods.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Two-year, 24-hour design stormThe basis for planning stormwater management facilities that can accommodate the largest amount of rainfall expected over a 24-hour period during a two-year interval.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Undercover parkingVehicle storage that is underground, under deck, under roof, or under a building.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Underground parkingA parking facility that is 'tuck-under" or stacked structure that reduces the exposed parking surface area.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) outputThe electricity provided by a unit that keeps information technology (IT) equipment functioning during a power outage. UPS output does not include efficiency losses from the unit itself but does include losses from downstream electrical distribution components, such as power distribution units, and it may include non-IT ancillary devices installed in IT racks, such as fans. If the UPS system supports non-IT equipment (e.g., computer room air-conditioning units, computer room air handlers, in-row coolers), this usage must be metered and subtracted from the UPS output reading. The metering approach should be consistent with the metering required for the power usage efficiency (PUE) category (e.g., continuous consumption metering for PUE categories 1, 2 and 3).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Universal notificationNotifying building occupants not less than 72 hours before a pesticide is applied in a building or on surrounding grounds under normal conditions, and within 24 hours after application of a pesticide in emergency conditions. Use of a least toxic pesticide or self-contained non-rodent bait does not require universal notification, all other pesticides applications do.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Universal wastehazardous items that are easily purchased and commonly used. Examples include batteries, pesticides, mercury-containing equipment, and light bulbs. See epa.gov/osw/hazard/wastetypes/universal/index.htm.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Unoccupied spaceAn area designed for equipment, machinery, or storage rather than for human activities. An equipment area is considered unoccupied only if retrieval of equipment is occasional.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Upstream equipmentA heating or cooling system or control associated with the district energy system (DES) but not part of the thermal connection or interface with the DES. Upstream equipment includes the thermal energy conversion plant and all the transmission and distribution equipment associated with transporting the thermal energy to the project building or site.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)The US Green Building Council (USGBC) was formed in 1993 as a private 501 (c)3, membership-based non-profit organization that promotes sustainability in how buildings are designed, build and operated. It is best known for the development of the Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating systems. Through its partnership with the Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI), the USGBC provides a variety of LEED professional credentials that denote expertise in the field of green building.
USDA OrganicThe U.S. Department of AgricultureÕs certification for products that contain at least 95% ingredients (excluding water and salt) produced without synthetic chemicals, antibiotics, or hormones. Any remaining ingredients must consist of USDA-approved nonagricultural substances or agricultural products that are not commercially available in organic form.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Vegetation-containing artificesPlanters, gardens or other constructs intended to host flora.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
VentilationThe provision and removal of air to control air contaminant levels, humidity or temperature within an indoor space. Ventilation is measured in air changes per hour - the quantity of infiltration air in cubic feet per minute (cfm) divided by the volume of the room.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Vertical illuminanceIlluminance levels calculated at a point on a vertical surface, or that occur on a vertical plane.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Visible light transmittanceThe ratio of total transmitted light to total incident light (i.e. the amount of visible spectrum, 380-780 nanometer light passing through a glazing surface divided by the amount of light striking the glazing surface). The higher the ratio value, the more incident light is passing through the glazing.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Vision glazingThe glass portion of an exterior window that permits views to the exterior or interior. Vision glazing must allow a clear image of the exterior and must not be obstructed by frits, fibers, patterned glazing, or added tints that distort color balance.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)Compounds that are volatile at typical room temperatures. The specific organic compounds addressed by the referenced Green Seal Standard (GS-11) are identified in EPA Reference Test Method 24 (Determination of Volatile Matter Content, Water Content, Density Volume Solids, and Weight Solids of Surface Coatings), Code of Federal Regulations Title 40, Part 60, Appendix A.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Walk-off matsMats placed inside building entrances to capture dirt, water and other materials tracked inside by people and equipment.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Walking distanceThe distance that a pedestrian must travel between origins and destinations without obstruction, in a safe and comfortable environment on a continuous network of sidewalks, all weather-surface footpaths, crosswalks, or equivalent pedestrian facilities. The walking distance must be drawn from an entrance that is accessible to all building users.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
WasteAll materials that flow from the building to final disposal. Examples include paper, grass trimmings, food scraps and plastics. Ê For this credit, waste refers to all materials that are capable of being diverted from the building's waste stream of the building through waste reduction, including source reduction, recycling and composting.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Waste disposalElimination of waste by means of burial in a landfill, combustion in an incinerator, dumping at sea, or any other way that is not recycling or reuse.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Waste diversionA management activity that disposes of waste through methods other than incineration or landfilling. Examples include reuse and recycling.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Waste reductionIncludes source reduction and waste diversion through reuse or recycling.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Waste reduction program(1) Describes the organization's commitment to minimizing waste disposal by using source reduction, reuse, and recycling; (2) assigns responsibility within the organization for implementation of the program; (3) lists the general actions that will be implemented to reduce waste; and (4) describes tracking and review procedures to monitor waste reduction and improve waste reduction performance.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Waste streamThe overall flow of wastes from the building to the landfill, incinerator, recycling facility or other disposal site.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Waste-to-energyThe conversion of nonrecyclable waste materials into usable heat, electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes, including combustion, gasification, pyrolization, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas (LFG) recovery.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Water bodyThe surface water of a stream (first-order and higher, including intermittent streams), arroyo, river, canal, lake, estuary, bay, or ocean. It does not include irrigation ditches.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Water budgetA project-specific method of calculating the amount of water required by the building and associated grounds. The budget takes into account indoor, outdoor, process, and makeup water demands and any on site supply including estimated rainfall. Water budgets must be associated with a specified amount of time, such as a week, month, or year and a quantity of water such as kGal, or liters.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Water meterA device used to measure the volume of water usage. Most commercial building water meters are designed to measure cold potable water.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Wave and tidal power systemsSystem that captures energy from waves and the diumal flux of tidal power, respectively. The captured energy is commonly used for desalination, water pumping and electricity generation.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Wet meterA device installed inside a water pipe to record the volume of passing water.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
WetlandAn area that is inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances does support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas, but exclude irrigation ditches unless delineated as part of an adjacent wetland.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Wind energyElectricity generated by wind turbines.Available from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
WoodPlant-based materials that are eligible for certification under the Forest Stewardship Council. Examples include bamboo and palm (monocots) as well as hardwoods (angiosperms) and softwoods (gymnosperms).Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
XeriscapingLandscaping that does not require routine irrigation; a landscaping method designed for water conservation so that routine irrigation is not necessary. It includes using drought-adaptable and low-water plants, soil amendments such as compost to conserve moisture and mulches to reduce evaporation.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014; Also from (www.GBCI.org) accessed 24 October 2014
Yard tractorA vehicle used primarily to facilitate the movement of truck trailers and other types of large shipping containers from one area of a site to another. It does not include forklift trucks.ÊAlso known as terminal tractor, yard truck, utility tractor rig, yard goat, or yard hustler.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014
Zero lot line projectA plot whose building footprint typically aligns or nearly aligns with the site limits.Available from (www.USGBC.org/glossary) accessed 22 October 2014


Subscribe
Emerald Skyline Corporation
Address:  2141 NW 1st Place Boca Raton, FL 3341
Phone: 305-424-8704
Fax: 800-212-9230
E-mail: info@emeraldskyline.com
Copyright © 2014emeraldskyline.com | All Rights Reserved

Golden Spiral Design